Genus Paravulvus

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            Family Nygolaimidae
                        Genus Paravulvus

Genus Paravulvus Heyns, 1968

Diagnosis: Small-sized nematodes usually less than 2.0 mm.  Body ventrally curved, more so in posterior half.  Cuticle, sub-cuticle or both with distinct transverse striations.  Lip region continuous with body contour or slightly set off by depression, usually wider than body here.  Tooth usually deltoid, rarely solididentoid type in some species, equal to or less than width of lip region.  Sheath enveloping basal expanded part of oesophagus inconspicuous.  Oesophageal gland nuclei exceptionally large and distinct.  Cardia absent; cardiac glands ovoid with their long axis parallel to body length.  Large sub-dorsal organs present at base of oesophagus.  Female reproductive system amphidelphic.  Vulva longitudinal.  Ventral body pores, anterior and posterior to vulva, transformed into special organs called "paravulvae".  Number of paravulvae variable.  Males with massive spicules, slender gubernaculum and well-developed ventromedian supplements.  Tail bluntly rounded, short to elongate-conoid and ventrally curved; similar in sexes     Type species: Paravulvus acuticaudatus (Thorne, 1930) Thorne, 1974.” From Jairajpuri and Ahmad, 1992 and Powers and Mullin website


Jairajpuri MS, Ahmad W. 1992. Dorylaimida: free-living, predacious and plant-parasitic nematodes. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi

Powers T. and P. Mullin. Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes. University of Nebraska Nematology Website. Images: Photo Gallery- Haughton Crater